Camera Lucida was the invention of William Hyde Wollaston, a British scientist, circa 1807. It is an apparatus that aids in drawing. When looking through its prism one can simultaneously observe the drawing board and the subject of the drawing.
The practice of physically changing the surface characteristics of photographic prints dates back to the earliest days of paper photography. To achieve the desired surface quality, photographers applied a variety of coatings; they also physically manipulated the print as an integral part of the finishing process.